Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP)

Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP)

Introduction

It is a highly contagious and infectious disease of goats. Sheep is not infected generally, however the infection can occur occasionally.

It is usually characterized by:

Catarrh of upper respiratory tract, inflammation of the lungs (unilateral or bilateral pleuropneumonia), and accumulation of fluid in the chest cavity (pleural effusion).

Etiology

Mycoplasma capricolum spp capripneumoniae, (Mccp) which is also known as Mycoplasma F38 biotype

Epidemiology

• According to the report of OIE, 2009, CCPP is not reported. Neither any other relevant sources ensures the prevalence of CCPP in Nepal.

• Is endemic in many countries of Africa and the Middle East causing economic losses.

• CCPP is also reported in Asian countries like India and Pakistan.

• First reported in Europe in 2004, when outbreaks were confirmed in Thrace, Turkey, with losses of up to 25% in some herds

• Mycoplasma F38 biotype, was first isolated in Kenya

Mode of Transmission

CCPP is highly contagious. The transmission occurs when there is close proximity between the infected animal and susceptible host.

The sources from where susceptible animals acquire infection are:

Infective aerosols

Carrier state

Pathogenesis

• Inhalation of infected droplets

• Mycoplasma reaches deeper to the bronchioles

• Inflammation of bronchiole wall

• Invasion of interlobular connective tissue septa

• Inflammation followed by edema

• Mycoplasma spreads to alveoli

• Release of exotoxin (toxin w’)

Acute vasciculitis and thrombosis(in pulmonary vessels) 5

Sequela

forming necrotic tissue, which interferes with effective respiration and causes the goat to die from lack of oxygen (anoxia).

Morbidity: 100%

Mortality: 60-100%

Clinical Findings

Incubation period: It is highly variable, ranges from 3-4 days to several weeks.

  • CCPP is strictly a respiratory disease. Peracute, acute and chronic forms occur in endemic areas.

Peracute: affected goats may die within 1–3 days with minimal

clinical signs.

Acute: initial signs are high fever (41–43°C), lethargy and anorexia, followed within 2–3 days by coughing and labored respiration. The cough is frequent, violent and productive.

  • In the final stages of disease, the goat may not be able to move and stands with its front legs wide apart and its neck stiff and extended.
  • Saliva can drip continuously from the mouth, and the animal may grunt or bleat in pain. Frothy nasal discharge and stringy saliva may be seen terminally.
  • Pregnant goats can abort. Acutely affected goats generally die within seven to 10 days.
  • Chronic: there is chronic cough, nasal discharge and debilitation

Gross Lesions

Lesions of CCPP are limited to the respiratory system.

Acute:

• Rhinitis and catarrh inflammation of URT

• Presence of unilateral or bilateral pneumonia and serofibrinous pleuritis with strawcoloured fluid in the thorax. The distention of interlobular septa by serofibrinous fluid is observed.

Congestion of lungs and on cut surface, the lung is granular with copious straw- coloured exudates

  • Some long-term survivors show chronic lesions Chronic:

• chronic pleuropneumoniae or chronic pleuritis, with encapsulation of acute lesions and numerous adhesions to the chest wall.

Microscopic lesions

• Numerous infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells, can be seen around the bronchi, alveoli and lungs

• Large necrotic areas are walled with fibrous tissues and ultimately gets encapsulated.

• Histologically, interstitial interlobular edema may be found.

Diagnosis

  • History, clinical sign and symptoms that includes respiratory distress.
  • PM lesions

Lab tests Blood Picture

  • Decrease R.B.C and Hb
  • Increase in Serum Glucose and urea nitrogen

Isolation/identification

– Immunofluorescence (long filamentous branch) – Growth or metabolic inhibition tests

– PCR Serology

– Complement fixation

– Passive hemagglutination

Differential diagnosis

• Peste des petits ruminants, to which sheep are also susceptible.

• Pasteurellosis, which can be differentiated on the basis of distribution of gross lung lesions.

• Contagious agalactia syndrome, also known as Mastitis, arthritis, keratitis, pneumonia and septicaemia syndrome (MAKEPS). As the latter name implies, the pneumonia is accompanied by prominent lesions in other organs, and is caused by other mycoplasmal organisms.

Treatment

  • If caught early, CCPP may be treated with antibiotics. Morbidity is considered to be 100% with mortality being between 60-100%
  • Tylosin @ 40mg/kg.b.wt I/M for 5 days
  • Treatment with Tylosin tartrate @10mg/kg b.wt. IM along with cotrimoxazole tablet for 5-7 days is suggested.
  • Tiamutin @36mg/kg.b.wt for 5 days gives satisfactory response
  • OTC @5-10mg/kg IM or slow IV once daily for 3-4 days
  • A single dose of either 30- 40 mg/kg body weight of the dihydrostreptomycin sulphate intramuscularly led to the recovery of the treated goats.

Control

• Vaccinations for CCPP are available. The vaccine consists of live culture of M.caprae(0.2 ml at the tip of ear)

• Re-vaccination at 6 month interval is recommended.

• Quarantine of afflicted individuals is the best form of preventing herd infection.

References

  • The Merck Veterinary Manual, 9th Edition, Cynthia M. Kahn (Editor), Scott Line (Associate Editor)
  • A textbook of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 6th edition, 2018, Amalendu Chakrabati.
  • World Organisation for Animal Health (2009). – Terrestrial Animal Health Code. OIE, Paris.

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