Everyone wants a happy and healthy family in their life. Family planning is one of the major aspect in this regard. Family planning is a set of practices that help couples to determine the number of children in the family. These days the world population is also increasing in a geometric pattern which is crossing the carrying capacity of our planet. Especially in the developing and underdeveloped countries less efforts are seen in this regard. So family planning knowledge is vital nowadays.
Objectives of family planning:
The main objective is to decide the number of children in the family.Family planning helps to prevent unwanted births and regulate the intervals between pregnancies. In addition, this avoids the cases of abortion and helps restore the health of mother and child.
A number of methods of family planning have been used world wide. Contraception means the prevention of conception or pregnancy.
Methods of Contraception/ Family planning methods:
|Temporary methods||Permanent methods|
|A. Natural methods||A. For males Vasectomy: permanent male sterilisation method in which a part of vas deferens is removed and open ends are ligated.|
|B. Barrier method||B. For females Minilap( Tubectomy ): Fallopian tubes are cut and ligated. Laparoscopy: fallopian tubes are occluded with the help of laparoscope.|
|C. Intrauterine contraceptive devices ( IUCD)|
|D. Hormonal contraceptives|
A. Natural methods:
1. Abstinence: completely avoiding sexual intercourse.
2. Coitus interruptus : Penistone withdrawl during ejaculation.
3. Basal body temperature method : During ovulation body temperature increases upto 0.5°C.
4. Cervical mucous method : Cervical mucous observation to identify ovulation.
5. Breastfeeding : Pregnancy is prevented upto 6 months if continuously practiced.
B. Barrier methods :
1. Physical barriers: Condoms for males and femidoms for females. They also prevent STDs (sexually transmitted diseases ).
2. Chemical methods ( spermicidal agents ): Kill the sperms. Eg. . Nonoxynol-9, Menfegol ( Kamal chakki ). These are to be inserted into the vagina 10 minutes before the intercourse.
C. Intrauterine contraceptive devices ( IUCD): They are kept inside uterus 6 to 8 weeks after delivery or within 6 days of the beginning of menstrual period. Eg. . Copper T, progestasert.
D. Hormonal contraceptives :
1. Oral pills : may be mini pills( progesterone only) or combined pills ( both progesterone and estrogen) . Available as gulaf, kanchan, nilocan, nilocan white, etc in Nepal.
2. Injectable: Available in Nepal as Norplant. It consists of 6 silicon rubber capsules containing 35 mg each of Levonorgesterol. It is said that this works upto 7 years.
The family planning methods like IUCDs, Tubectomy, vasectomy, etc requires professional medical practitioners. However, other simple methods can be applied onself after getting directions from medical assistants.
https://www.who.int › topics › family_pl…