Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that can be transmitted from animals to people or more specially, a disease that normally exists in animal but that can infect humans. Zoonotic TB is a form of tuberculosis in people caused by wide variety of mammalian species. M. bovis is pathogenic for many animal species, especially bovidae, cervidae and occasionally carnivores. Cattle are the most important animal reservoir for M. bovis in relation to zoonoic exposure of humans, but the disease can affect many other species and become established in wildlife reservoirs. It results in important economic losses. And trade business with a major impact on the marginalized communities.
Zoonotic tuberculosis affects sites other than lungs( extra-pulmonary), such as lymph nodes of neck and gastrointestinal tract, but in many cases in clinically indistinguishable from TB caused by M. tuberculosis. The transmission of this tuberculosis between animals and humans has not been reported mostly. But M. tuberculosis from elephant to human has been researched.This infection in domesticated elephant was first reported in 1875. Then, humans has been considered as the source of infection. For one asian elephant that died of M. tuberculosis., although subsequent showed animal and human isolates to be two different phenotypes. That epidemiologic investigation strongly suggests M. tuberculosis transmitted between humans and elephants as evidances by DNA fingerprinting.
Tuberculosis is an airborne pathogen, meaning that the bacteria that causes TB can spread through the air from person to person. After person being infected, the tuberculosis bacteria controlled by the persons immune systems. The infection becomes latent or confined. When the bacteria spread out of control further becomes active. And this far 700 or more different zoonosis have been identified. Among them tuberculosis is specially important because of large numbers of human patients.
Future actions to challenge the zoonotic tuberculosis in peoples is important.The most important and concrete actions to be implemented in short term to overcome the major challenges caused by zoonotic tuberculosis are; to develop and implement official policy and guidelines clearly out lining priority activities; to implement effective and comprehensive strategies to routinely scurvy for zoonotic tuberculosis cases; to expand the use of appropriate diagonopstic tools to obtain accurate and representatives data for incidence of M. bovis infection in peoples especially in countries where M. bovis is endemic and through the successful implementation of these three specific actions. We believe that priority should be given to the prevention, diagonosis and treatment challenges that zoonotic tuberculosis is still present today for considerable health and welfare of animals.