Article originally written by H.N Pandey and Pushkar Joshi
B.V.Sc and AH IAAS,Paklihawa
A.New Castle Disease
Newcastle disease was first identified in java, Indonesia in 1926 .Newcastle disease is a contagious viral bird disease affecting many domestic and wild avian species; It is endemic to many countries.
Casual agent:– Paramyxovirus (species:- Avian avulavirus 1)
Mode of transmission:- NVD is spread primarily through direct contact between healthy birds and infected birds through infected birds droppings and secretion from the nose, mouth and eyes.
Incubation period :- 4–6days
Clinical signs/ symptoms:- Respiratory signs( gasping, coughing
Nervous signs( depression, inappetence, muscular tremors, drooping wings, twisting of head and neck, circling, complete paralysis), swelling of the tissue around the eye and neck region, greenish watery diarrhoes, rough or thin- shelled eggs.
Immunologicaaltests:- Enzyme linked immunosorbent assey, polymerase chain reaction, and sequence technology test have been developed.
Prevention:- Diseased animal should be isolated immediately from flock. New birds should also be vaccinated before being introduced to flock.
Inactivated viral vaccines- in developed country
Thermotolerant vaccine- in underdeveloped countries.
Treatment:- There is no treatment for Newcastle disease, although treatment with antibiotics to control secondary infection may assist. The virus can remain alive in manure for 2 months and in dead carcasses for upto 12 months, howevernit is easily killed by disinfactants, fumigants and direct sunlight.
PPR also known as ‘ goat plague ‘ is a viral disease of goats and sheep characterized by fever , sores iin the mouth, diarrohea , pneumonia and sometimes death.
HISTORY OF DISEASE :
-China first reported the disease in 2007 and it spread into North Africa for the first time in Morocco iin 2008.
CAUSATIVE AGENT :
-PPR is caused by a morbillivirus in the family of paramyxo viruses that is related to rinderpest , measles and canine distemper .
TRANSMISSION OF DISESASE :
-The virus is secreted in tears , nasal discharge , secretions from coughing and in the faces of infected animals .Therefore close contact between animals , especially through in inahalation of fine droplets that are released into air when affected animals cough and sneeze will spread the disease . Virus canot survive outside the body for long period of time .
CLINIC SYMPTOMS :
1)There is sudden onset of fever, severe depression , loss of apetite and clear nasal discharge . Nasal discharge become thicker and yellow and block the nostril causing respiratory distress.
2)The eyes may also become infected causing eyelids to mat together with discharge .
3)Severe diarrhea develops in some animals resulting in dehydration and weight loss.
4)Pneumonia is common in later stage . Pregnant animal may abort .
5)The progonosis of peste dog petis ruminants is poor and death cann occur within five days to ten days of the onset of fever .
PREVENTION AND CONTROL MEASURE :
1)When the disease appears in a previously unaffected area , the standard disease control measures consisting of quarantine movement control , sanitary slaughter and cleaning and disinfection are applied . There are no medications available to treat the disease but supportive treatment may decrease mortality.
2)A vaccine is used where the disease is eatablished and it provide good immunity .PPR vaccine is given against virus .
PUBLIC HEALTH RISK:
Humans are not affected by the virus.
Diseases of poultry and livestock ,12th edition