Orginally written by Vishal Tandan, B.V.Sc & AH, 15th batch (IAAS,Paklihwa)
Biosecurity refers to the procedures and techniques that are applied to protect the farm birds from various infections and diseases. Biosecurity is the cheapest and effective disease prevention.
Advantages of Biosecurity
- Prevent the entry of exotic diseases .
- Minimize the risk of zoonotic diseases.
- Reduce the spreading intensity of disease.
- Minimize the effect of disease on public health.
- Minimize the cost of medications.
Conceptual and structural biosecurity includes the selection, isolation and construction of farm. These include farm site selection, size, shape and forms of buildings, etc. On the other hand, the day to day activities that are carried out in the farm including sanitation of workers, visitors, traffics and so on comes under operational biosecurity.
How disease can transfer?
- From unhealthy chicks from hatchery.
- Shoes and clothing of visitors and caretakers who move in between farms.
- Improperly dispossed dead carcass.
- Contaminated water source or non purified water.
- Rodents, wild animals and free flying birds and insects.
- Contaminated feeds and feed sacks.
- Trucks and other vehicles that enter into the farm.
- Soil and old litter.
What we can do?
- New chicks represent a greater risk to biosecurity as their health status is unknown. So selection of chicks from reliable and trustable hatchery is utmost.
- Considering the economy, it is better to put concrete boundary all around the farm which prevent the entry of unknown visitors, wild birds and animals, people with wrong motives and so on.
- Records of entries and exits of every visitors and vehicles is recommended. This will help in future investigations if any disease outbreak occurs.
- Regular cleaning and disinfections of farm house and various farm utensils is utmost. Before brooding new chicks, the farm is disinfected or fumigated and leave as such for 4 to 7 days. This will reduce the risk of disease transfer in new chicks.
- Separate clothings and shoes can be managed for caretakers to carry out activities inside the poultry house.
- Dipping chemicals in farm entrance to disinfect vehicles and visitors, and a dipping tank at poultry house entrance can be managed.
- In large poultry farms, all-in all- out management practice of poultry flocks is comparatively effective as it allows the simultaneous depopulation of flocks and also provides time for periodic cleanup and disinfections to break the cycle of disease.
- Farms in which all in and all out system cannot be practice, separate isolation houses and quarantine can be practiced for newly entering birds.
- Clearing the vegetation around the buildings prevent the introduction of rodents and insects.
- Litter should be dumped at far distance and should be used as manure or keep out of the farm as soon as possible.
- Separate isolated concrete carcass management pit can be manged.